La Brea Pitch Lake in Trinidad and Tobago by Paulina,
La Brea Pitch Lake, Trinidad. Photo courtesy

Pitch Lake: An enduring legacy in Trinidad and Tobago

Nestled in the heart of Trinidad, the La Brea Pitch Lake is a mesmerising natural wonder. But beyond its bubbling surface and intriguing legends lies a history intricately woven with the economic fabric of Trinidad and Tobago.

For centuries, the Pitch Lake’s viscous black asphalt has fuelled industries, paved roads, and propelled the nation towards prosperity. Its story is a testament to human ingenuity and a reminder of the power hidden within the earth’s depths.

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The La Brea Pitch Lake is the largest and most significant pitch lake in the world, and it has been fascinating people for centuries. The lake is estimated to be 100 acres (41 hectares) in size and 250 feet (76 metres) deep at its centre. It holds about 10 million tonnes of pitch, which is an emulsion of water, gas, bitumen, and mineral matter.

The La Brea Pitch Lake is a popular tourist attraction, and it is also used for a variety of purposes, including road construction, roofing materials, and paint. The lake is also significant to the indigenous people of Trinidad and Tobago, who have their own legends about its origin.

The legend of the Pitch Lake

The story goes that after victory in warfare, in celebration an Arawak village slaughtered humming birds to feast on and to use their feathers in ceremonial head gear, ignoring the fact that these beautiful birds were said to house the spirits of ancestors.

As punishment for their wrong doing their winged god turned to earth below the village into pitch which swallowed the village whole killing all the blasphemers.

Some claim to hear the faint sounds of drumming and chanting emanating from the depths, suggesting the spirits of the villagers still reside there. Others believe the legend arose from fossilised wood and artifacts occasionally unearthed from the lake, remnants of a bygone civilisation.

Trinidad Island Sightseeing Tour: Pitch Lake and Chaguanas
Get off the beaten path and explore southern Trinidad. After a convenient hotel pickup in Port-of-Spain, stop by Chaguanas, home to much of the island’s East Indian population. Tour a local ashram and feast on a delicious roti before visiting the tiny village of La Brea and its massive lake of natural asphalt. Finish the tour atop San Fernando Hill, a perfect spot for panoramic photo.

Early encounters and industrial beginnings

Long before European arrival, the Amerindian people utilized the Pitch Lake’s resources for waterproofing huts and canoes. However, it was Sir Walter Raleigh’s 1595 encounter that catapulted the lake onto the global stage.

His use of the asphalt to mend his ship sparked interest in its commercial potential. By the 18th century, small-scale extraction began, but it wasn’t until the 19th century that the lake truly flourished.

With the rise of the automobile industry and infrastructure development, the demand for asphalt skyrocketed. By 1888, large-scale mining operations commenced, heralding the “Trinidad Lake Asphalt” era.

The black gold from the La Brea transformed into roads across the globe, from New York City to London, solidifying Trinidad’s position as a leading asphalt exporter.

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Boom and transition

The 20th century witnessed the pinnacle of the Pitch Lake’s economic significance. Trinidad Lake Asphalt fuelled national development, creating jobs, and generating substantial revenue.

However, the discovery of petroleum deposits elsewhere gradually shifted the tide. By the late 20th century, competition grew, and the demand for natural asphalt dipped.

Conservation and diversification

Recognising the Pitch Lake’s unique heritage and ecological importance, the government established the La Brea Pitch Lake Asphalt Reserve in 1994.

This marked a shift towards conservation and research, exploring sustainable uses for the resource. Today, the lake serves as a tourist attraction, drawing visitors keen to witness its natural wonder.

Diversification has also become key. Lake Asphalt of Trinidad and Tobago (LATT) now produces an array of products beyond raw asphalt, including paints, coatings, and construction materials. Additionally, research continues into the lake’s potential for renewable energy and advanced materials.

Down South Tour of Trinidad
Explore Trinidad’s southern side on this full-day tour from Port of Spain. With a guide in the lead providing engaging commentary, visit La Brea’s Pitch Lake, one of the world’s largest, and bathe in the onsite sulfur baths. Continue to central Trinidad to the Sadhu Temple in the sea, Hanuman Murti, and a local pottery shop.

Beyond numbers

The Pitch Lake’s impact transcends mere economic figures. It is a symbol of resilience, a testament to the nation’s ability to adapt and evolve. It has shaped communities, birthed local industries, and fuelled dreams.

Its legacy lives on in the sturdy roads, the stories whispered amidst the bubbling tar, and the unwavering spirit of a nation forever intertwined with the black gold of the La Brea Pitch Lake.

The Pitch Lake’s story is far from over. As research and innovation continue, its future promises new chapters, ensuring that this natural wonder remains not just a relic of the past, but a source of inspiration and sustainable growth for generations to come.

Mini Island Tour of Trinidad
Get a comprehensive mini tour of Trinidad on this 5-hour excursion from Port of Spain. Stroll through the produce market and the local bazaar in Chaguanas, then stop by the Temple of the Sea and a pottery studio, among other attractions. Pickup and drop-off at accommodations in Port of Spain are included.

A brief list of the long history of the Pitch Lake


  • Millennia before European arrival, the indigenous Amerindian people of Trinidad knew the lake well. They called it “Tierra de Brea” (Land of Pitch) and held it in reverence, weaving tales of its origins and power. The lake provided them with a valuable resource, used for waterproofing canoes, caulking huts, and even treating ailments.

16th century and European discovery:

  • In 1595, Sir Walter Raleigh became the first documented European to encounter the Pitch Lake. During his exploration of Trinidad, he used the asphalt to repair his storm-battered ship, marking the lake’s entry into the Western world’s consciousness.
  • The Spanish, who colonised Trinidad in the 17th century, continued to utilise the lake’s asphalt for their ships and trade. They dubbed it “Lago de la Brea” (Lake of Pitch).

18th and 19th centuries – industrial beginnings:

  • The 18th century saw the first commercial extraction of asphalt from the lake. However, large-scale operations began in the 19th century with the arrival of British interests. Companies formed, and mining techniques evolved, transforming the lake into a valuable economic asset.
  • In 1888, the Trinidad Government granted a contract for large-scale exploitation, marking the start of an era of intense industrial activity around the lake.
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20th century – boom and bust:

  • The 20th century witnessed the peak of the Pitch Lake’s industrial significance. Asphalt from the lake was used in paving roads, constructing buildings, and waterproofing materials worldwide. Its popularity fuelled significant economic growth for Trinidad.
  • However, the discovery of petroleum deposits elsewhere in the 20th century led to a gradual decline in the demand for natural asphalt. By the late 20th century, mining at the Pitch Lake had reduced significantly.

21st century – conservation and exploration:

  • Today, the Pitch Lake holds a different kind of value. Recognising its unique ecological and cultural significance, the Trinidad and Tobago government established the La Brea Pitch Lake Asphalt Reserve in 1994.
  • The lake is now a protected area, with a focus on research, conservation, and tourism. Scientists continue to study the lake’s geological origins, biodiversity, and potential for sustainable development.
  • Visitors can explore the lake through guided tours, witnessing its bubbling surface, learning about its history, and appreciating its role in shaping the island’s identity.

7 Quick facts about the Pitch Lake:

  1. The La Brea Pitch Lake is the largest and most significant pitch lake in the world.
  2. The lake is estimated to be 100 acres (41 hectares) in size and 250 feet (76 metres) deep at its centre.
  3. It holds about 10 million tonnes of pitch.
  4. The pitch is an emulsion of water, gas, bitumen, and mineral matter.
  5. The La Brea Pitch Lake is a popular tourist attraction.
  6. The lake is also used for a variety of purposes, including road construction, roofing materials, and paint.
  7. The lake is significant to the indigenous people of Trinidad and Tobago.


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The La Brea Pitch Lake’s story is a testament to the enduring power of nature and its intricate relationship with human history. From ancient reverence to industrial boom and subsequent conservation efforts, the lake continues to captivate and inspire, promising further chapters in its ongoing saga.


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